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Fault Codes Information of Volvo Engine

May. 16, 2018



Fault code information

• MID (“Message Identification Description”):

The MID consists of a number which designates the control unit that sent the fault code message.

(e.g. the engine control unit).

• PID (“Parameter Identification Description”):

The PID consists of a number that designates a parameter (value) to which the fault code relates

(oil pressure, for example).

• PPID (“Proprietary PID”):

The same as the PID, but this is a Volvo-specific parameter.


• SID (“Subsystem Identification Description”):

The SID consists of a number that designates a component to which the fault code relates (tachometer, for example).

• PSID (“Proprietary SID”):

The same as the SID, but this is a Volvo-specific component.

• FMI (“Failure Mode Identifier”):

FMI indicates the type of fault (please refer to the FMI table below).


Suspect Parameter Number



FMI table

SAE standard



Display text

SAE text


“Value too high”

Data valid but above normal operational range.


“Value too low”

Data valid but below operational range.


“Faulty data”

Data erratic, intermittent or incorrect


“Electrical fault”

Voltage above normal or shorted high.


“Electrical fault”

Voltage below normal or shorted to lower voltage.


“Electrical fault”

Current below normal or open circuit.


“Electrical fault”

Current above normal or short circuit to battery negative


“Mechanical fault”

Mechanical system not responding properly


“Mechanical or electrical fault”

Abnormal frequency, pulse width or period


“Communication fault”

Abnormal update rate


“Mechanical or electrical fault”

Abnormally large variations


“Unknown fault”

Unidentifiable error.


“Component fault”

Faulty device or component


“Faulty calibration”

Calibration value out of range.


“Unknown fault”

Special instructions



Data valid but above normal, too high - least severe level.



Data valid but above normal, too high - moderately severe level.



Data valid but below normal, too low - least severe level.



Data valid but below normal, too low - moderately severe level.



Received network data in error.



Reserved for SAE assignment.



Condition exist.



Volvo specific for injectors (MID 128, SID 1-6)





Short circuit to battery voltage, injector low voltage side


Short circuit to battery negative, injector low voltage or high voltage side


Open circuit in injector circuit.


Mechanical system not responding properly


Low injector hold current



General advice

NOTICE! The following must be done before fault tracing continues, to avoid changing functional sensors: If there is an active / inactive fault code 

Remove the connector from the sensor. Check that there is no oxidation and that the connector pins are not damaged. If there is a fault, please refer to the instructions in Fault tracing of cables and connectors page 43.

NOTICE! Some fault codes become inactive when the engine is stopped. Start the engine to check whether the fault code is still inactive with the engine running. After an action with the connector

Put the connector back. Check if the fault code becomes inactive.

Check faults that could be related to that specific sensor. If the fault remains, measure the cables and sensors to check them, as instructed.


The system has two types of communication buses.



A data link (CAN bus) links the nodes to each other.

CAN (“Controller Area Network”) is an industrial standard for distributed systems.

The CAN bus consists of a pair of copper conductors which are twisted 30 times per meter. The nodes communicate via the CAN bus and they form a network together, which exchanges information and benefits from each other’s services.

The CAN bus is a serial bus and is the primary control bus.


The communication bus, J1587, is also used for accessories and for diagnostics.

This is a serial bus in accordance with standard SAE J1708. 30-0 General 42


30-2 Fault Tracing



Fault tracing of cables and



88890074 Multimeter

9998482 Measuring tool

Check all connectors visually

Check the following:

• Look for oxidation which can impair contact in connectors.

• Check that terminals are undamaged, that they are correctly inserted into their connectors, and that the cable is correctly terminated in the terminal.

• Check that there is good mechanical contact in the connector. Use a loose pin to check this.



The multi-pin connectors for the engine control unit must only be checked with 9998482 Measuring tool.

• Carefully insert 9998482 Measuring tool into the multi-pin connector. Pull and push the connector in and out a few times and feel whether the terminal socket grasps the tool. If the terminal socket does not grasp, or if it feels slack, the connection pins should be changed. Please refer to Joining electrical cables for connectors. Check the secondary locking in the connector.

• If possible, shake the cables and pull the connectors during measurement to discover whether the cable harness is damaged.

• Check that the cables are not damaged. Avoid clamping cables in tight bends close to the connector.

• Check the function of the secondary locking.



Contact problems

Intermittent contact or temporary recurring faults can be difficult to fault trace, and are frequently caused by oxidation, vibration or poorly terminated cables.

Wear can also cause faults. For this reason, avoid disconnecting a connector unless it is necessary.

Other contact problems can be caused by damage to pins, sockets and connectors etc.

Shake cables and pull connectors during measurement, to find where the cable is damaged.

Contact resistance and oxidation

Resistance in connectors, cables and junctions should be approx. 0 Ω. A certain amount of resistance will occur, however, because of oxidation in connectors.

If this resistance is too great, malfunctions occur. The amount of resistance that can be tolerated before malfunctions occur varies, depending on the load in the circuit.


Open circuit

Possible reasons for faults could be chafed or broken cables, or connectors which have come undone.

Use the wiring schedule to check the cables which are relevant to the function. Start off with the most probable cable in the circuit.

Check the following:

• Disconnect the relevant connector at each end of the cable harness.

• Use 88890074 Multimeter to measure the resistance between the ends of the cable.

Nominal value ~ 0 Ω.

• If possible, shake the cables and pull the connectors during measurement to discover whether the cable harness is damaged.

• Check the next cable system in the wiring schedule if no fault has been found.


For More Volvo Engine workshop information, please visit

Volvo Diesel Engine Workshop Manual

General Workshop Information of Volvo Engine

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