The fuel injection pump of a diesel generator set is an important component of the diesel engine fuel supply system, which increases oil pressure, controls fuel injection time and quantity. Its working condition directly affects the power, economy, and reliability of the diesel engine.
The fuel injection pump is driven by the engine crankshaft gear to rotate the camshaft to complete the fuel injection function. The fuel injection pump is usually equipped with a speed controller to ensure the low-speed operation of the diesel engine and limit the maximum speed, ensuring a certain relationship between the injection amount and the speed. There are five measures to prevent internal leakage in the fuel injection pump of diesel generator sets:
(1) Ensure the cleanliness of diesel fuel. The characteristics of the diesel engine fuel supply system and the formation method of the combustible mixture determine that the filtering requirements for diesel in diesel generators are much higher than those for gasoline in gasoline engines. Therefore, it is necessary to choose diesel that meets the required grades and undergoes sedimentation for at least 48 hours.
(2) Strengthen the maintenance and upkeep of the fuel system: It is necessary to strengthen the maintenance of the diesel filter and timely clean or replace the filter element; Timely clean the fuel tank to prevent impurities in diesel from causing serious corrosion or wear to the fuel injection pump plunger and outlet valve.
(3) Properly assemble the fuel injection pump. Before assembly, all parts must be thoroughly cleaned to prevent impurities from adhering to the surface of the mating parts. When disassembling and assembling the plunger and oil outlet valve components, they should be taken out, installed, and replaced in pairs. Do not pull out the plunger casually, and mark it if necessary to avoid confusion, which may cause excessive clearance between plunger components and oil leakage. Be careful not to lose or miss the copper washer under the positioning screw of the plunger sleeve. Tighten the oil outlet valve seat to the specified torque (60-70N · m). Do not tighten too tightly.
(4) Regularly check the fuel supply of each cylinder. Due to the wear and tear of the plunger and oil outlet valve components, diesel internal leakage can cause a decrease or uneven fuel supply to each cylinder, resulting in difficulty starting, insufficient power, increased fuel consumption, and unstable operation of the diesel generator. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly check and adjust the fuel supply of each cylinder of the fuel injection pump to ensure the full performance of the diesel engine power. In practical use, the fuel supply of each cylinder can be determined by observing the exhaust gas of the diesel engine, listening to the engine's sound, and detecting the exhaust temperature.
(5) Regularly check the sealing condition of the oil outlet valve. After a period of operation of the fuel injection pump, the sealing condition of the oil valve can be checked to make a rough judgment on the wear of the plunger and the working condition of the oil pump, which is conducive to determining repair and maintenance methods. When checking, unscrew the high-pressure oil pipe joints of each cylinder and pump oil with the hand pump of the oil delivery pump. If oil flows out of the top oil pipe joint of the fuel injection pump, it indicates that the sealing of the outlet valve is poor (this situation can also occur if the spring of the outlet valve is broken). If multiple cylinders have poor sealing, the fuel injection pump should be thoroughly maintained and the matching parts replaced.
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