When the diesel generator is in normal operation, the unit runs at normal speed, the sound is clear, there is no noise, the control mechanism is normal and sensitive, and the exhaust port can be said to be no smoke. The equipment can’t work, it means it can’t bear a large load, that is, it will turn off when the load increases, the exhaust port will emit white or black smoke during work, the high-speed operation is abnormal, the sound is dull, and the knocking sound is more serious. There are many reasons for the poor operation of diesel generators, and they are also more complicated. However, in general, it can be analyzed and judged from the following aspects.
1. The engine is weak, the speed is not high, and it emits smoke.
There are fewer fuel injection times on diesel generators, and the common reasons are as follows.
(1) The fuel supply of the fuel pump is not adjusted properly, or the throttle lever cannot be pulled out, the fuel injection pump cannot provide the maximum fuel supply. For 2105 diesel engines and diesel generators with No. I fuel injection pumps, if there are too many screws screwing in too much, it will produce explosive weakness, sometimes explosive or even stop.
(2) Improper adjustment of the high-speed speed-limiting adjustment screw, and the elasticity of the high-speed spring is too weak.
(3) The plunger of the fuel injection pump is worn seriously. The oil supply is reduced due to the wear of the plunger and coupler. The fuel supply can be increased appropriately. However, when the abrasion is serious, increasing the oil supply will not work, and it should be replaced with new parts or repaired.
(4) Use manual fuel transfer pump type I and type I fuel injection pump. If the fuel transfer pump works abnormally or a part of the diesel filter is blocked, the low-pressure fuel line is not well supplied, and there is a problem with the fuel supply of the fuel injection pump.
2. The diesel generator runs weakly and emits heavy smoke at various speeds.
This phenomenon is mainly due to insufficient fuel injection atomization and incorrect refueling time.
(1) The fuel injection nozzle or the fuel delivery valve is seriously worn, dripping, poor atomization, and insufficient combustion.
(2) The installation position of the fuel injector on the cylinder head is incorrect, and the use of copper pads or aluminum washers that are too thick or too thin will cause the fuel injector to have an improper spray range and insufficient combustion.
(3) The components of the fuel injection pump transmission system are worn out, causing the fuel supply to be too late.
(4) The fuel supply time has not been adjusted.
3. When the speed is unstable, the diesel engine emits smoke.
(1) The fuel supply of different cylinders is inconsistent. The abrasion or improper adjustment of the jet pump and fuel injection nozzle can easily cause uneven fuel supply in each cylinder. The method of judging the inconsistency of fuel supply can make the diesel generator run empty. Using the cylinder stop method, one cylinder is stopped for oil supply in turn, and the speed meter is used to measure the speed. When the cylinder is broken, the fuel supply of each cylinder is the same, and the change of the cut-off volume should be the same or very close. If there is a big difference in the speed change, the fuel supply of the fuel injection pump should be adjusted.
(2) Water vapor or air leakage in the oil circuit of the diesel fuel supply system will also cause poor fuel supply from the fuel injection pump.
4. Diesel generators have low speed and smog, but the high speed is basically normal.
The performance is that the cylinder leaks air, and there is less air leak at high speed, so it can basically work normally. Gas leakage causes low temperature and is not easy to cause fire. During the operation of the diesel generator, if a large amount of smoke is emitted from the fuel filler port, or there is a "squeak" sound in the crankshaft running part, and it is obvious at low speed, it can be judged as a leak between the cylinder block and the piston. The other two possible leaks are the valve and cylinder head gasket.
5. The performance power of the diesel generator is not good, but there is no smoke at the exhaust port when idling and when the fuel supply is small, and it is easy to emit black smoke when the fuel supply is large.
(1) The filter element of the air filter is blocked, causing poor water intake of the diesel generator, but insufficient power.
(2) The valve clearance is too large, resulting in insufficient valve opening and poor air intake.
(3) There is too much carbon deposit in the exhaust pipe, and the exhaust port resistance is too large.
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