Diesel engine can output power during the working process. In addition to directly convert the thermal energy of the fuel into the mechanical energy combustion chamber and crank-connecting rod mechanism, it must be ensured by corresponding mechanisms and systems, and these mechanisms and systems are interconnected and coordinated.
Diesel engines of different types and uses have different forms of mechanisms and systems, but their functions are basically the same. Diesel engines mainly consist of body components and connecting rod, valve timing mechanism and intake and exhaust system, fuel supply and speed control system, lubrication system, cooling system, and starting device and other institutions and systems.
Crank connecting rod mechanism body assembly mainly include cylinder block, cylinder head and crankcase. It is the assembly base of the diesel engine system, and many parts of the diesel engine are the crank and connecting rod mechanism, the gas distribution mechanism and the intake and exhaust system, the fuel supply and speed control system, the lubrication system and the cooling system. For example, the cylinder head and the piston head together form a combustion chamber space, and a number of parts, intake and exhaust channels, and oil channels are also arranged on top of it.
The conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy needs to be accomplished by crank-link mechanism. This mechanism is the main moving part of the diesel engine and consists of piston, connecting rod, crankshaft, flywheel and crankcase. When the diesel is burned, the piston is subjected to the pressure of the gas expansion, and the crankshaft is rotated by the connecting rod. The reciprocating linear motion of the piston is converted into the rotational motion of the crankshaft, and the external power is output.
Valve Mechanism and Intake and Exhaust System
Intake and exhaust system valve train consists of valve group (intake valve, exhaust valve, valve guide pipe, valve seat and valve spring, etc.) and transmission group (tappet, rocker arm, rocker-arm shaft, camshaft and the timing gear). Intake and exhaust system is composed of air filter, inlet air pipe, exhaust pipe and muffler. The function of the gas distribution mechanism and the intake and exhaust system is to open and close the intake and exhaust valves timely according to certain requirements, exhaust the exhaust gas from the cylinder and suck in fresh air, ensuring the smooth operation of the diesel engine.
Fuel Supply and Speed Regulating System
The function of fuel supply and speed regulating system is to mix a certain amount of diesel oil into the combustion chamber and air at a certain pressure for a certain period of time. It mainly consists of diesel tank, oil transfer pump, fuel filter, fuel injection pump (high pressure oil pump), fuel injector and governor.
The function of the lubricating system is to send the lubricating oil to the friction surface of each moving parts of the diesel engine, which plays the role of friction reduction, cooling, purification, sealing and rust prevention, so as to reduce friction resistance and wear, and take away the heat generated by friction, thus ensuring the normal operation of the diesel engine. Lubrication system is mainly composed of oil pump, oil filter, oil radiator, various valves and lubricating oil passages.
The function of the cooling system is to transfer the heat of the heated parts of the diesel engine to keep the diesel engine working at the most suitable temperature, so as to obtain good economy, power performance and durability. The cooling system is divided into water cooling and air cooling. Most diesel engines use water as the cooling medium. A few diesel engines use air-cooled systems. The wind cooling is also known as air cooling, use air as cooling medium to transfer heat from the heated parts of the diesel engine. This cooling method consists of fan and wind scooper. In order to increase the heat dissipation area, a heat sink is usually cast on the cylinder head and the cylinder block.
The diesel engine cannot be started by itself, and must reply on external force to achieve self-operating state. Therefore, the diesel engine is equipped with a special starting device. The hand-started diesel engine is equipped with a starting claw, the motor-started diesel engine is equipped with a starting motor, and the compressed air-started engine is equipped with compressed air starting device, etc.
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