When the diesel generator set is disassembled for maintenance, it is sometimes found that some equipment is rusted. So how to deal with the rusting of diesel generator set equipment? Rust is the oxide formed by the metal surface contacting with oxygen, water and acids in the air, such as FFeO, Fe3O4Fe2O3, etc., which is usually called rust. The main methods of rust removal include mechanical method, chemical pickling method and electrochemical etching method.
(1) Mechanical method.
The mechanical method is to remove the rust layer on the surface of parts by using the friction, cutting and other functions between mechanical parts. Common methods include brushing, grinding, polishing and sandblasting. Single piece and small batch maintenance rely on manual brushing, scraping or polishing of rust layer with wire brush, scraper, abrasive cloth, etc. A batch of parts or units with conditions can be powered by motors or pneumatic motors to drive various derusting tools for derusting, such as electric polishing, polishing, rolling, etc. Sand blasting is to use compressed air to spray sand with a certain size on the rusted surface of the parts through the spray gun. It can not only remove rust quickly, but also prepare for painting, spraying, electroplating and other processes. The surface after sandblasting is clean and has a certain roughness, which can improve the adhesion between the coating and the parts. Mechanical derusting can only be used on the surface of unimportant mechanical parts.
(2) Chemical method.
Chemical method, which is an acid washing method that uses chemical reaction to dissolve the corrosion products on the metal surface. Its principle is that the rust layer falls off due to the dissolution of acid on metal and the mechanical action of hydrogen generated in chemical reaction on the rust layer. Common acids include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, etc. Due to the different materials of metals, the chemicals used to dissolve corrosion products are also different. The selection of derusting chemicals and their use and operation conditions are mainly determined by the metal type, chemical composition, surface condition, part size accuracy and surface quality.
(3) Electrochemical acid etching method.
The electrochemical acid etching method is to place the parts in the electrolyte and apply direct current to remove rust through chemical reaction. This method is faster than chemical method, can better preserve the base metal, and consumes less acid. It is generally divided into two categories: one is to use the derusted parts as anode. The other is to use the derusted parts as cathode. Anodic derusting is to separate the rust layer due to the metal dissolution after power on and the tearing effect of oxygen on the rust layer at the anode. Cathodic derusting is due to the reduction of iron oxide by hydrogen generated on the cathode after electrification and the tearing effect of hydrogen on the rust layer to make the rust fall off from the surface of the parts. The main disadvantage of the above two methods is that when the current density is too high, it is easy to corrode excessively and damage the surface of parts, so it is suitable for parts with simple shape. Although the latter has no over-corrosion problem, hydrogen is easy to enter the metal, resulting in hydrogen embrittlement and reducing the plasticity of parts. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the appropriate derusting method according to the specific situation of the rusted parts.
In addition, in production practice, the derusting liquid prepared by various materials can also be used to treat the oil removal, rust removal and passivation in one. Except for zinc, magnesium and other metals, most metals can be used regardless of size, and spray cleaning, brushing, soaking and other methods can be used.
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