Most parts with relative motion are lubricated with engine oil, so for internal combustion engines (diesel generators), the amount of engine oil is large. The shafts and bearings of starting motors, water pumps, generators and other components are usually lubricated with grease.
First of all, let's introduce the use of engine oil. Viscosity is an important indicator of engine oil quality, the most important performance of engine oil, and the main basis for selecting engine oil. Viscosity is usually expressed as kinematic viscosity. Kinematic viscosity is determined by the time required for a certain amount of oil to pass through a capillary tube of a certain diameter and length on the viscometer under a certain pressure, and its unit is mm ²/ s。
The longer the time is required, the greater the kinematic viscosity of the oil. Domestic engine oils are classified according to the kinematic viscosity at 373K. Gasoline engine oils are divided into four categories (according to the national standard GB11121-1995), and their brands are HQ-6D, HQ-6, HQ-10 and HQ-15. Diesel generator oil is divided into three categories (GB11122-1997), and its brands are HC-8, HC-11 and HC-14.
The viscosity of the oil should be less affected by temperature changes. But in fact, the viscosity always changes when the temperature changes. The viscosity becomes smaller when the temperature is high, and becomes larger when the temperature is low. Therefore, oil with higher viscosity shall be used in summer, and oil with lower viscosity shall be used in winter to obtain proper lubrication.
The degree of viscosity change with temperature is of great significance in use, which is usually expressed by the ratio of kinematic viscosity at different temperatures. The specifications of domestic engine oil products specify the maximum kinematic viscosity ratio of engine oil at 323K and 373K. The low temperature viscosity of the engine oil with small ratio makes the resistance in the lubricating system of the cold internal combustion engine not too large, and the internal combustion engine is easy to start; Moreover, its high-temperature viscosity is not too small, which can ensure proper lubrication performance.
In order to improve the quality of engine oil in some aspects, about 10% additives are often added to the engine oil. Among these additives, there are anti rust additives to prevent metal corrosion; Useful viscosity increasing additive to increase oil viscosity; It is used as a pour point reducing additive to reduce the freezing point of the engine oil, as well as an anti-oxidation and anti-corrosion additive to prevent the engine oil from corroding metals and oxidation of the engine oil itself; It is a detergent dispersant additive that can promote the sludge, cement and carbon deposition in the deposited oil to disperse.
Domestic engine oils include gasoline engine oil and diesel generator oil. Due to the heavy mechanical load and thermal load of diesel generators, the materials used for bearings are often different from those of gasoline engines (many diesel generators use lead bronze bearings). To ensure normal lubrication and prevent bearing corrosion, diesel generator oil should be used for diesel generators.
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