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The Power Generation Principle of The Alternator

Sep. 27, 2022

As a backup and emergency power source, the alternator provides power supply guarantee for many industries. In daily life, alternators play an important role all the time. When a power failure occurs, it means that information interruption, lighting interruption, production interruption, and even life interruption may occur in many industries. At this time, the generator set supports the beam of emergency power supply, thus ensuring the production safety and property safety of various industries. So, what is the structure and working principle of the alternator? Below, Starlight Power Equipment will answer your questions.


diesel power generator


1. Classification of generators


There are many forms of generators, but their working principles are based on the law of electromagnetic induction and the law of electromagnetic force. Therefore, the general principle of its construction is: use appropriate magnetic and conductive materials to form magnetic circuits and circuits that conduct electromagnetic induction with each other to generate electromagnetic power and achieve the purpose of energy conversion.


The classification of generators can be summarized as follows:


Generators DC generators, alternators, synchronous generators, asynchronous generators (rarely used).


Alternators can also be divided into single-phase generators and three-phase generators.


2. Alternator structure


The alternator is usually composed of components such as stator, rotor, end cover and bearing.


The stator consists of stator core, wire wrap winding, frame and other structural parts that fix these parts. The function of the stator is to generate alternating current.


The rotor is composed of rotor core (or magnetic pole, magnetic yoke) winding, guard ring, center ring, slip ring, fan and rotating shaft. The function of the rotor is to generate a magnetic field. installed in the stator.


The principle is to connect and assemble the stator and rotor of the generator by the bearing and the end cover, so that the rotor can rotate in the stator and perform the movement of cutting the magnetic lines of force, thereby generating an induced potential, which is drawn out through the terminal and connected to the loop, and a current is generated. .


3. The working principle of the alternator


Using the principle of electromagnetic induction in which the electric potential is induced by the wire cutting magnetic lines of force, the mechanical energy of the prime mover is converted into electrical energy output. The alternator consists of two parts, the stator and the rotor. The stator is the armature that generates electricity, and the rotor is the magnetic pole. The stator is composed of armature core, three-phase windings evenly distributed, frame and end cover. The rotor is usually a hidden pole type, consisting of an excitation winding, an iron core and a shaft, a guard ring, and a center ring. The excitation winding of the rotor is fed with a DC current to generate a nearly sinusoidal distributed magnetic field (called the rotor magnetic field), and its effective excitation magnetic flux is interlinked with the stationary armature winding.


When the rotor rotates, the magnetic field of the rotor rotates along with it, and the magnetic field line cuts each phase winding of the stator sequentially, and a three-phase alternating current potential is induced in the three-phase stator winding. When the generator runs with a symmetrical load, the three-phase armature currents combine to generate a rotating magnetic field with a synchronous speed. The interaction between the stator magnetic field and the rotor magnetic field produces braking torque. From the steam/water/gas turbine, the input mechanical torque overcomes the braking torque to do work.


The above content is about the structure and working principle of the alternator organized by Starlight Power Generation Equipment, hoping to deepen the user's understanding of the alternator. If you would like to get more information welcome to contact us via sales@dieselgeneratortech.com.

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