The components in the high-pressure oil circuit of the generator set include the fuel injection pump, governor, high-pressure fuel pipe, injector, etc. They are precise and important components in the diesel fuel supply system. Their working performance will directly affect the power output, fuel consumption, mechanical load and working reliability of diesel engines.
Therefore, the technical requirements for the repair of components in the high-pressure oil circuit are relatively high. In general, special technicians use the fuel injection pump test bench or injector calibration and fuel injection pump assembly or injector for debugging or repair.
Fuel injection pump: the function of the fuel injection pump is to produce high-pressure diesel fuel, and according to the size of the diesel engine speed and load, send a certain amount of pressure and atomized diesel fuel to the combustion chamber through the injector.
The fuel injection pump has many structural forms. According to the different working principles of fuel injection pumps, it can be generally divided into the following four categories:
1. Rotor distribution type fuel injection pump: It is characterized by the realization of booster pump and distribution of fuel depending on the rotation of the rotor.
2. Fuel injection pump injector: it is characterized by integrating the fuel injection pump and injector, and the generation of high-pressure diesel fuel and the adjustment of diesel fuel volume are completed in the fuel injection pump injector.
3. PT pump: its fuel supply feature is to adjust the fuel supply quantity according to the pressure time change relationship. The fuel supply quantity is adjusted in the diesel pump. The generation and timing injection of high-pressure diesel are completed in the fuel injector.
4. Plunger fuel injection pump: it is characterized by using the reciprocating motion of the plunger in the plunger sleeve to suction and pressure oil, and the adjustment of the oil supply quantity of the standby cylinder is realized by changing the effective stroke of the plunger oil supply. The pump is widely used because of its compact structure, reliable operation, convenient debugging and maintenance. The following focuses on the plunger fuel injection pump.
Physical appearance of the plunger type fuel injection pump of the generator set: the calibrated plunger type fuel injection pump is mainly composed of plug coupling, outlet valve coupling, roller body, rotating plunger mechanism, camshaft, pump body and accessory parts.
When the plunger of the generator set moves downward with the adjusting screw of the roller body, the diesel oil in the low-pressure oil passage in the pump body enters the upper oil chamber of the plunger through the oil hole of the plunger sleeve. When the plunger moves upward with the adjusting screw of the roller body, the oil hole on the plunger sleeve is closed. As the plunger continues to move upward, the diesel oil in the upper oil chamber of the plunger is compressed and the oil pressure rises rapidly. When the diesel oil pressure exceeds the pressure of the oil outlet valve spring, As the plunger continues to move upward, the diesel pressure in the high-pressure hose and injector will continue to increase until the diesel pressure is greater than the opening pressure of the injector. The injector needle valve will not open until the diesel pressure is greater than the opening pressure of the injector, and high-pressure diesel will be injected into the combustion chamber in a mist form.
The whole oil pressure process continues until the spiral chute of the plunger gives way to the oil hole of the plunger sleeve for a moment. The oil hole is opened, and the high-pressure diesel oil at the top of the plunger flows back to the low-pressure oil passage of the pump body through the straight groove on the plunger and the oil return hole on the plunger sleeve. At this time, the oil pressure in the oil chamber at the top of the plunger drops rapidly, the injector stops fuel injection, and the outlet valve returns to the valve seat under the action of the spring.
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