Appraisal and Testing
Installation recommendations regarding each subject are to be found in the previous chapter. Refer to the relevant section to retrieve information so that the installation achieves a satisfactory standard. While the preliminary cooling system design is based on calculations, the suitability of any given system must be determined by actual tests. The tests must correspond to the most difficult operational conditions that may arise during use.
Optional equipment specified by the original equipment manufacturer must be clearly defined and taken into account during the tests. Moreover, the checks and tests must include, and be adapted to, such equipment. For high altitude operations, there will be additional costs for the original equipment manufacturer in regard to certain applications. Experience has however shown that if customers are not able to clearly define and check which areas the equipment will be used in, Volvo Penta recommendations to adapt the installation to the most difficult conditions are justified. International standardization is ever more common,especially within industrial and construction machinery.
This opens up possibilities for manufacturers to ship machinery between various parts of the world. Because of this we strongly recommend that the cooling system be designed so that the machinery may be used anywhere without the need to alter the cooling system. Copies of all inspection documentation must be sent to Sales Engineering Industrial, AB Volvo Penta so that information may be registered for future reference and guidance for other departments within Volvo Penta. This request applies whether or not the applications have been approved.
NOTICE! Information regarding inspections and tests are also available at Volvo Penta Partner Network under “Application Engineering Operating Procedures”
Global ambient temperatures
Set out below are maximum ambient temperatures for Volvo Penta-driven applications around the entire world. The world has been divided into the following temperature zones:
A Northern Europe: 35 °C (95 °F).
B Southern Europe: 40 °C (104 °F).
C Scandinavia and Great Britain: 30 °C (86 °F).
D North America, Canada, Central and South America, parts of Asia: 40 °C (104 °F).
E Africa, Middle East, Far East, Australia and South Pacific: 50 °C (122 °F).
The stated temperatures for the various parts of the world are based on the average of the highest monthly ambient temperatures in the shade registered over a number of years.
It is the original equipment manufacturer's responsibility to ensure that the cooling system specification is suitable for the area in which the application is to be used.
However, we must point out that cooling tests carried out according to the different stated levels do not guarantee against the occasional overheating of machinery in operational use. This applies especially to days that are hotter than average conditions, and when the application is used in direct sunlight and is exposed to heat radiation from the ground etc. We therefore recommend that the cooling system be designed with sufficient margin for these circumstances. Customers who export machinery and/or manufacture in different parts of the world are strongly recommended to implement a standardized cooling system that can be used throughout the world. This facilitates both spare parts warehousing and service.
The test procedures described in this section are intended to provide guidance when the various tests are performed as part of installation checks. One of the main objectives is to try to ensure that temperatures and other data are always registered at the same point. Some manufacturers offer optional cooling systems. In such cases cooling specifications must be clearly defined and separate tests carried out in order to confirm each specification before any coolant tests are performed.
NOTICE! Every new or updated installation must be inspected and approved by a Volvo Penta representative. Volvo Penta Sweden uses advanced measuring and test equipment for this purpose, at registration points described in the Measurement points page 136 section.
Air to Air Intercooled Engines
In engine installations where the cooling system has not been supplied by Volvo Penta it is of the greatest importance that the pressure drop and temperature drop across the charge air cooler are within Volvo Penta specified values. Both the temperature and charge pressure sensors must be installed in the ducting before and after the charge air cooler. In many cases it is necessary to drill and tap holes in the ducting. A combined union for temperature and pressure is recommended in order to minimize the number of holes.
NOTICE! Carefully remove all swarf after drilling and tapping.
NOTICE! Calibrate the pressure sensor accurately, as the pressure differential across the CAC must not exceed 10 kPa (1.45 PSI).
Measuring Radiator Airflow
The most usual causes of low cooling margins are insufficient airflow or hot air circulation. The best way to check this is to use an airspeed measuring instrument.
First measure the radiator surface and divide it into four equal squares of around 100 x 100 mm (3.94 x 3.94"). Mark the center of each square with paint on the radiator.
Use a high-quality airspeed instrument to measure airspeed at each point marked on the radiator. Owing to turbulent airflow it may be difficult to obtain a constant reading at each point. Measure for 10 to 15 seconds and calculate the average airflow at the point. Calculate the total average airflow for the radiator and multiply the result by the radiator surface area. This gives airflow over the radiator. Airspeed will vary significantly between the different measuring points during the test. The illustration is an example. This is where the difficulty in designing a cooling system lies. Fan type, fan diameter, fan speed, cowl, and fan location etc. all influence the airspeed pattern, as shown in the chart.
Sequential tests after step by step modifications to the cooling system will lead finally to the best airflow and even air distribution over the radiator. The airspeed instrument may also be used to detect hot air circulating back to the radiator because of e.g. poor ducting.
In order to maximize the gains from an installation test so that a complete register of relevant data may be compiled, we recommend that the following points are registered. Also refer to the illustration on the following page:
1 Ambient temperature in the shade; not in direct sunlight, not in a draught nor in the exhaust flow.
2 Temperature before the air filter inlet.
3 Air temperature before the turbocharger. The measuring point must be located as close to the turbocharger as possible.
4 Charge air temperature is measured in the inlet manifold. Take into consideration whether or not a charge air cooler is fitted. Refer also to the section Air to Air Intercooled Engines page 134.
5 Exhaust temperature, as close to the turbocharger as possible (exhaust side) in the exhaust flange or the first straight section of exhaust pipe.
6 Air temperature in front of the radiator, right side.
7 Air temperature in front of the radiator, left side.
8 Air temperature in back of the radiator, left side.
9 Air temperature in back of the radiator, right side. The temperatures 6, 7, 8 and 9 must be measured in line with the fan center and around 100 mm (3.94") from the radiator.
10 Coolant outlet temperature, i.e. coolant from the engine to the radiator. This must be measured in the thermostat housing or as close to the thermostat housing as possible, e.g. in the hose to the radiator if no threaded hole is available in the thermostat housing. 11 Coolant inlet temperature, i.e. coolant from the radiator outlet to the water pump inlet. The measuring point must be located as close to the water pump inlet as possible.
12 Coolant inlet temperature to the torque converter oil cooler must be measured between the radiator outlet and the torque converter oil cooler inlet.
13 Lubricating oil temperature must be measured with a thermocouple attached to the oil dipstick. Refer to the section Oil Temperature and Oil Filter page 99 in the Lubrication system chapter.
14 Fuel temperature; the measuring point is the hollow screw in the cylinder head fuel inlet, or the outlet from the fuel filter.
15 Air filter limit (pressure drop); the pressure sensor must be installed in front of the turbocharger.
16 Coolant pressure must be measured at the highest point in the radiator.
17 Charge pressure; in the inlet manifold. Refer also to the section Air to Air Intercooled Engines page 134.
18 Exhaust back pressure; in the first straight section of the exhaust pipe, close to the turbocharger.
19 Engine rpm is measured by induction sensor on the vibration damper or read off the value from Vodia.
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